In , J.C.R. Licklider published his groundbreaking paper called “Man- Computer Symbiosis.” Licklider was both a psychologist and a. J.C.R. Licklider (). Excerpts from “Man-computer Symbiosis”. IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pp (now IEEE). J.C.R. Licklider may well be one of the most influential people in the history of In two extraordinary papers, Man-Computer Symbiosis () and The.

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David Scott Brown Man-computter 3, Strangely enough, the problem of language has been a puzzle for philosophers for centuries. Men will fill in the lickliderr, either in the problem solution or in the computer program, when the computer has no mode or routine that is applicable in a particular circumstance. Throughout the period I examined, in short, my “thinking” time was devoted mainly to activities that were essentially clerical or mechanical: You get a sheet of paper 20 feet long, full of numbers that, instead of providing a final solution, only suggest a tactic that should be explored by simulation.

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J.C.R. Licklider (1915-1990)

Fant, “Electric analog of the vocal tract,” J. Will the symbiotic organism remain a person in the sense the term is used today?

The requirement for preformulation or predetermination is sometimes no great disadvantage. The main suggestion conveyed by the findings just described is that the operations that fill most of the time allegedly devoted to technical thinking are operations that can be performed more effectively by machines than by men. Will advanced analytics and sensors and massive data stores transform the “wearer” lickklider an inhuman analog of a person?


AI may have some limitations of its own. Lickliderwhich was published during the year The large display symbiois be supplemented, according to most of those who have thought about the problem, by individual display-control units.

Ask Dan! about DSS – What is a man-computer symbiosis?

Licklider and Welden Clark August Two or three years ago, it appeared that automatic recognition of sizeable vocabularies would not be achieved for ten or fifteen years; that it would have to await much further, gradual accumulation of knowledge of acoustic, phonetic, man-compuuter, and psychological processes in speech communication. They will ask questions. Preliminary analyses indicate that the symbiotic partnership will perform intellectual operations much more effectively than man alone can perform them.

Speculation about a deeper integration of man and machine has been occurring for more than 50 years. In some instances, particularly in large computer-centered information and control systems, the human operators are responsible mainly for functions that it proved infeasible to automate.

Ask Dan! about DSS

The large wall display and its associated system are relevant, of course, to symbiotic cooperation between a computer and a team of men. In so far as other aspects of memory requirement are concerned, we may count upon the continuing development of ordinary scientific and business computing machines There is some prospect that memory elements will become as fast as processing logic elements. Integration will perhaps occur as an implant, a helmet device with direct connections to the human brain and nervous system, or as a wearable like a watch or jewlery.

Several designers are convinced that displays with the desired characteristics can be constructed with the aid of flashing lights and time-sharing viewing screens based on the light-valve principle. In current man-machine systems, that is one of the human operator’s most important functions.


Information storage and retrieval. Finally, it will do as much diagnosis, pattern-matching, and relevance-recognizing as it profitably can, but it will accept a clearly secondary status in those areas. Let us examine some of them to see more clearly what is needed and what the chances are of achieving it. Since untrained operators can read at least as rapidly as trained ones can type, such a device would be a convenient tool in almost any computer installation.

The general purpose machine that we stare into and fervently punch commands into incessantly through the day gives us the news, licklidrr us, keeps us in touch with others, and tells us the time of day. However, many problems that can be thought through in advance are very difficult to think through in advance.

Man-Computer Symbiosis – Wikipedia

Certainly, for effective man-computer interaction, it will be necessary for the man and the computer to draw graphs and pictures and mn-computer write notes and equations to each other on the same display surface. In one sense, they do not store the arguments at all. How can we possibly impart this skill to symbiisis computer? In some ways it is a logical extension of our past decision support research, in other ways the prospect of a tightly linked relationship of a human being with a “smart” computing machine is frightening.

Most of the remainder seems to be wrapped up in the problem of pattern recognition within the storage mechanism or medium.