Key Points. The Kanem Empire (c. –) at its height encompassed an area covering much of Chad, parts of southern Libya (Fezzan) and eastern Niger. The Kanem-Bornu Empire was a large African state which existed from the 9th century through the end of the 19th century and which spanned a region which. The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an African trading empire ruled by the Saf dynasty from the ninth to the nineteenth centuries. It encompassed, at.

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Retrieved 24 September It was at that point that Kanem’s son, Umar, became king, thus ending one of the longest dynastic reigns in regional history.


The Kanem Empire is often referred to as the longest empire to rule in African history. Under his leadership the Bornu empire significantly expanded westward, culminating in conquest over the Hausa state of Kano. Kanem’s expansion peaked during the long and energetic reign of Mai Dunama Dabbalemi ca.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. When coupled with regional particularism, and attacks by the militant Ouaddai Empire to the east, the empire was set on the road to destruction. Umar eschewed the title mai for the simpler designation shehu from the Arabic shaykhcould not match his father’s vitality, and gradually allowed the kingdom to be ruled by advisers wazirs. As with other dynamic politicians, Aluma’s reformist goals led him to seek loyal and competent advisers and allies, and he frequently relied on slaves who had been educated in noble homes.

In approximately C. Influence Although, the Kanem and Bornu Empire were influential especially in the areas of trade, iron and horsemanship, the peak of their influence emerged under the leadership of Mai Idris Alooma. Dabbalemi was able to suppress this tendency, but after his death, dissension among his sons weakened the Sayfawa Dynasty. Even though the Kanembu became the main power-base of the Sayfuwa, Kanem’s rulers continued to travel frequently throughout the kingdom and especially towards Bornu, west of lake Chad.

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The empire included a confederation of nomadic peoples who spoke languages of the Teda—Daza Toubou group. The Sayfawa ruled until the 19 th century. Then, around Mai Ali Dunamami defeated his rivals and began the consolidation of Bornu. But even in Bornu, the Sayfawa Dynasty’s troubles persisted. By the end of the 17th century, the empire started declining, and by the 18th century, it only extended westward into the land of the Hausa. There are several theories that attempt to tell its story.

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Kanem–Bornu Empire – Wikipedia

Some of them are noted for having undertaken the pilgrimage to Mecca others for their piety. Thanks for this info. He sponsored the construction of numerous mosques and made a pilgrimage to Meccawhere he arranged for the establishment of a hostel to be used by pilgrims from his empire. Help us improve this article! The Sayfawa Dynasty faced decades of internal conflicts and invasions from various groups such as the Bulala.

He eventually built in a capital at Kukawa in present-day Nigeria. Aluma regularly sought advice from a council composed of heads of the most important clans. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Kanem Empire is estimated to have originated around C. His main adversaries were the Hausa to the west, the Tuareg and Toubou to the north, and the Bulala to the east.

I am so glad this could be helpful to you Babagana.

The article has a map page 6 of the ancient Central Sahara and proposes to identify Agisymba of CE with the early Kanem state. Under the rule of Dugu, Kanem expanded to become an empire.


Kevin Shillington New York: Some restrictions may apply to use of individual images which are separately licensed.

The Kanem-Bornu Empire

We welcome your suggestions. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: By the late 18th century, Bornu rule extended only westward, into the land of the Hausa of modern Nigeria. They faced invasion from the Fulanis who under the leadership of Usan Da Fodio who was ranging a emplre.

A Handbook for Teachers and Students. InRabih az-Zubayr led an invading army from eastern Sudan and conquered Bornu. Many products eempire sent north, including natron sodium carbonatecottonkola nuts, ivoryostrich feathers, perfume, wax, and hides, but the most important of all were slaves. By the end of the 14th century, internal struggles and external attacks had torn Kanem apart.

Sayfawa mais remained titular monarchs until Vangloriouz on May 1, at 4: A vital crossroads between the north-south trade routes and east-west trade routes to Nubiaa political state naturally formed. Kanem is mentioned as one of three great empires in Bilad el-Sudanby Al Yaqubi in Empiire United States BlackPast. Some of the government revenue included tribute, duties on participation in the tran-Saharan trade. During the first three-quarters of the fifteenth century, for example, fifteen mais occupied the throne.

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They are a small minority of Kanuris in southern Libya and a diaspora in Sudan. The Court at Kanem-Bornu, ca. From the 16th to the 19th century Darfur In Darfur: